GST Implications on Joint Development Agreements for Builders & Developers

GST Doctor Pro Version is on sale. Purchase once and enjoy lifetime access with free updates, click topurchase

GSTIN Validator (Registration Status for Multiple GSTINs) is back...

Home » Articles » GST Implications on Joint Development Agreements for Builders & Developers
GST Doctor

GST Doctor on Sat Mar 16 2024


Introduction to The Joint Development Agreement (JDA)-

JDA is an arrangement between two or more events to mutually develop a real property undertaking. Basically, builder offers the land at the same time as the developer brings it within the understanding and price range required for improvement. The revenue, prices and margin of profits are shared between the events in line within the terms of JDA.

For builders, JDA is used in actual estate development as it allows builders with large plots to unburdened land's potential by partnering with skilled builders.

For developers, JDA provides admission to top land without primary premature aquisition prices. JDA yields each event through threat and sharing value.

JDA serves as a contractual agreement between builder & real estate developer, mentioning the collaboration in construction tasks on the builder's assets. GST on JDA is charged at 18% on the value of the contract. As per the contract, the builder provides the land and the developer manages the construction side of the project.

Objectives of Entering into a JDA-

  1. For builder: Monetisation without ownership transfer
  2. For developer: Access to prime locations
  3. For both parties: Risk mitigation and resources optimisation

JDA Model: Collaborative Development Process-

This version involves a sequence of nicely defined steps to facilitate collaboration between the builder and the developer:

  1. Transfer of Development Rights-
  • The owner transfers rights to the developer for a fixed period.
  1. Planning of Project and it's approvals
  • Formulation of assignment plans and security of vital approvals
  1. Investment and Construction
  • Developer invests their budget and makes use of information for challenge creation.
  1. Marketing and Sales
  • Developer takes rate of advertising and promoting teh developed units.
  1. Sharing Revenue
  • Revenue is shared among the builder and developer based on pre-agreed ratio.
  1. Ratio Determination
  • Ratio is decided considering elements which includes land value, development charges and associated dangers.

JDA under GST-

Application of GST:

GST is relevant to the JDA and it depends on if or not JDA involves substances, products or offerings that qualify as composite or mixed delivery. JDA structure needs to be aligned with the implications of GST.


Delivery fee of products and offerings within the JDA must be decided by GST valuation rules. It includes the value of the switch of improvements rights, construction offerings and other materials between the events. Disputes of valuation are quite common.

Place of Delivery:

The location of delivery provisions ought to be analyzed to decide the area where GST wishes to be paid.

Input Tax Credit:

The eligibility of input tax credit should be clear between the builder and developer. The developer is eligible for ITC.

Time of Delivery:

The liability to pay GST arises should be exact and aligned with the GST regulation.

Tax Invoices:

Proper tax invoice is to be issued though each event as per stipulated timelines and information to avail ITC.

Tax Payment:

Responsibility for GST payments, techniques, penalties should be elaborately covered under JDA.


GST registration, returns, audits include the compliance of each party, their roles have to be well-defined.

Transition Regulations:

The treatment of pre-GST taxes like VAT, provider tax and so on needs elaboration.

Settlement of Disputes:

For tax related disputes between parties, resolution or settlement is essential.

Advantages of Entering JDA under GST-

  1. Collaboration and Synergy:
  • Faster collaboration of JDA encourages events to paint harmoniously towards a shared goal.
  • Innovation and synergy among involved entities promotion.
  1. Flexibility and Adaptability;
  • JDA must process the capability to accept the changing occasions, economic shifts or technological improvements.
  • It ensures the settlement stays applicable and effective over time.
  1. Market Access and Expansion:
  • JDA provide groups with avenues to enter new markets or decorate their presence.
  • It facilitates growth and marketplace diversification opportunities for the involved parties.

Disadvantages of Entering JDA under GST-

  1. Complexity and Longevity:
  • Complexities may also arise leading to disagreements and disputes.
  • Challenges related to the prolonged period of technique may also affect the sustainability of JDA.
  1. Risks:
  • It requires a vigilant method to locate and comply with converting regulatory necessities.
  1. Unforeseen Events:
  • Parties involved in JDA may also face vulnerabilities to unforeseen events or disruptions of their male or female activities.
  • It highlights the requirement for the threat mitigation techniques and contingency making plans.

Recent Updates, Amendments & Clarifications by GST Council on JDA-

Exemption of GST on Development Rights:

In thirty-fourth GST Council Meeting on Mar 19, 2019, decision was made to exempt GST on development rights, containing of Transferable Development Rights (TDR), JDA, rent and floor Space index (FSI). This exemption is mainly relevant to below- construction residential house challenge to GST.

CBIC Clarification on GST Applicability:

CBIC issued a rationalization in Jan 2018, maintaining that GST is not relevant to the attention received through builders under JDA. This interprates the supply of providers from builder to developer.

Impact of GST on JDA-

Builder are exempted from GST on JDA issues, developers may be sensible to pay GST on the offerings they provide.

  • The relevant GST price on developer services is contingent on the nature of services submitted.

  • While GST has not levied on builders concerns in JDA, developers face capability on their offerings. GST price relevant to developer services is contingent on nature of furnished services.


JDA allows standard utilization of land by bringing collectively builders and developers together. Complex crime and implications of tax have arisen under GST because of factors like valuation, input tax credit, opposite prices.

Therefore, proper structuring of JDA as per GST necessities is essential. Authorities have supplied diverse clarifications over years to manage with concerns. To sum up, JDAs will remain an alternative to builder and builders despite the emergence of GST difficult scenario.

Disclaimer: All the information on this website is published in good faith and for general information purpose only. Any action you take upon the information you find on this website (, is strictly at your own risk.